Biography
Einstein and Maric had an illegitimate daughter, Liserl, born in January 1902.
Upon
graduation,
Albert
Einstein could not
find a
teaching
post. He
began
working as a
technical
assistant
examiner at
the Swiss
Patent
Office in
1902. At the
Swiss Patent
Office,
Einstein
judged the
worth of
applications
by the
inventors,
rectified
their design
errors, and
evaluated
the
practicality
of their
work.
Einstein
married his
first wife, Mileva Maric,
on January
6, 1903.
Einstein's
marriage to
Mileva was
both a
personal and
intellectual
partnership:
Einstein
referred
lovingly to
Mileva as "a
creature who
is my equal
and who is
as strong
and
independent
as I am".
On May 14,
1904,
Albert
Einstein's
son Hans
Albert
Einstein was
born. In
1904,
Einstein's
position at
the Swiss
Patent
Office was
made
permanent.
He obtained
his
doctorate
after
submitting
his thesis
"On a new
determination
of molecular
dimensions"
in 1905.
That same year, he wrote four articles that provided the foundation of modern physics, without much scientific literature to refer to or many scientific colleagues to discuss the theories with. Most physicists agree that three of those papers (Brownian Motion, the Photoelectric Effect, and special relavitiy) deserved Nobel prizes. Only the photoelectric effect would win. This is something of an irony, in that Einstein is far betterknown for relativity, but that the photoelectric effect is all quantum, and Einstein became somewhat disenchanted with the path quantum theory would take. What makes these papers remarkable is that, in each case, Einstein boldly took an idea from theoretical physics to its logical consequences and managed to explain experimental results that had baffled scientists for decades.
Einstein discussed his scientific interests with Mileva and his close friends. He submitted these papers to the "Annalen der Physik" (they are commonly referred to as the "Annus Mirabilis Papers").
Brownian motion
Albert
Einstein's first
article in
1905, named
"On the
Motion 
Required by
the
Molecular
Kinetic
Theory of
Heat  of
Small
Particles
Suspended in
a Stationary
Liquid",
covered his
study of
Brownian
motion.
Using the
thencontroversial
kinetic
theory of
fluids it
established
that the
phenomenon—lacking
a
satisfactory
explanation
decades
after being
observed—provided
empirical
evidence for
the reality
of atoms. It
also lended
credence to
statistical
mechanics,
which was
also
controversial.
Before this
paper, atoms
were
recognized
as a useful
concept, but
physicists
and chemists
hotly
debated the
question of
whether
atoms were
real things.
Einstein's
statistical
discussion
of atomic
behavior
gave
experimentalists
a way to
count atoms
by looking
through an
ordinary
microscope.
Wilhelm
Ostwald, one
of the
leaders of
the
antiatom
school,
later told
Arnold
Sommerfeld
that he had
been
converted to
a belief in
atoms by
Einstein's
complete
explanation
of Brownian
motion.
Photoelectric
effect
Albert
Einstein's second
paper, named
"On a
Heuristic
Viewpoint
Concerning
the
Production
and
Transformation
of Light",
proposed the
idea of
"light
quanta" (now
called
photons) and
showed how
they could
be used to
explain such
phenomena as
the
photoelectric
effect. The
idea of
light quanta
was
motivated by
Max Planck's
earlier
derivation
of the law
of blackbody
radiation by
assuming
that
luminous
energy could
only be
absorbed or
emitted in
discrete
amounts,
called
quanta.
Albert
Einstein showed that,
by assuming
that light
actually
consisted of
discrete
packets, he
could
explain the
mysterious
photoelectric
effect.
The idea of
light quanta
contradicted
the wave
theory of
light that
followed
naturally
from James
Clerk
Maxwell's
equations
for
electromagnetic
behavior
and, more
generally,
the
assumption
of infinite
divisibility
of energy in
physical
systems.
Even after
experiments
showed that
Einstein's
equations
for the
photoelectric
effect were
accurate,
his
explanation
was not
universally
accepted. In
1922, when
he was
awarded the
Nobel Prize,
and his work
on
photoelectricity
was
mentioned by
name, most
physicists
thought
that, while
the equation
was correct,
light quanta
were
impossible.
The theory
of light
quanta was a
strong
indication
of
waveparticle
duality, the
concept that
physical
systems can
display both
wavelike
and
particlelike
properties,
and that was
used as a
fundamental
principle by
the creators
of quantum
mechanics. A
complete
picture of
the
photoelectric
effect was
only
obtained
after the
maturity of
quantum
mechanics.
Special
relativity
Albert
Einstein's
third paper
that year
was called
"On the
Electrodynamics
of Moving
Bodies".
While
developing
this paper,
Einstein
wrote to Mileva about
"our work on
relative
motion".
This paper
introduced
the special
theory of
relativity,
a theory of
time,
distance,
mass and
energy
(which was
consistent
with
electromagnetism,
but omitted
the force of
gravity).
Special
relativity
solved the
puzzle that
had been
apparent
since the
MichelsonMorley
experiment,
which had
shown that
light waves
could not be
travelling
through any
medium
(other known
waves
travelled
through
media  such
as water or
air). The
speed of
light was
thus fixed,
and not
relative to
the movement
of the
observer.
This was
impossible
under
Newtonian
classical
mechanics.
Some of the
paper's core
mathematical
ideas  the
Lorentz
transforms
 had been
introduced a
year earlier
by the Dutch
physicist
Hendrik
Lorentz, but
Albert
Einstein showed how
to
understand
these
mathematical
oddities.
His
explanation
arose from
two axioms:
one was
Galileo's
old idea
that the
laws of
nature
should be
the same for
all
observers
that move
with
constant
speed
relative to
each other;
and the
other was
that the
speed of
light is the
same for
every
observer.
Special
relativity
had several
striking
consequences
because the
absolute
concepts of
time and
size are
rejected.
The theory
came to be
called the
"special
theory of
relativity"
to
distinguish
it from his
later theory
of general
relativity,
which
considers
all
observers to
be
equivalent.
Energy
equivalency

In 1906,
Albert
Einstein was
promoted to
technical
examiner
second
class. In
1908,
Einstein was
licensed in
Berne,
Switzerland,
as a teacher
and lecturer
(known as a Privatdozent),
who had no
share in
the university
government.
Einstein's
second son,
Eduard, was
born on July
28, 1910. He
divorced
Mileva on
February 14,
1919.
Einstein
married his
cousin Elsa
Loewenthal
on June 2,
1919. Elsa
was Albert's
first cousin
(maternally)
and his
second
cousin
(paternally)
and she was
3 years
older than
Albert.
There were
no children
from this
marriage.
The fate of
Albert and
Mileva's
first child,
a daughter,
born prior
to their
marriage, is
unknown:
some believe
she died in
infancy and
some believe
she was
given out
for
adoption.
The other
two children
were boys:
one was
institutionalized
for
schizophrenia
and died in
an asylum.
The other
moved to
California
and became a
university
professor,
and had
little
interaction
with his
father.
In 1914,
just before
the start of
World War I,
Einstein
settled in
Berlin. His
pacifism
outraged
German
nationalists.
After he
became
worldfamous
(on November
7, 1919,
when The
Times
reported the
success of
his
gravitational
theory)
nationalist
hatred of
him grew
even more
ferocious.
From 1914 to 1933 he served as director of Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin, and it was during this time he received his Nobel Prize.
General
relativity
In November
1915,
Albert
Einstein presented a
series of
lectures
before the
Prussian
Academy of
Sciences in
which he
described
his theory
of general
relativity.
The final
lecture
climaxed
with his
introduction
of an
equation
that
replaced
Newton's law
of gravity.
This theory
considered
all
observers to
be
equivalent,
not only
those moving
at a uniform
speed. In
general
relativity,
gravity is
no longer a
force (as it
was in
Newton's law
of gravity)
but is a
consequence
of the
curvature of
spacetime.
The theory
provided the
foundation
for the
study of
cosmology
and gave
scientists
the tools
for
understanding
many
features of
the universe
that were
not
discovered
until well
after
Einstein's
death.
General
relativity
becomes a
method of
perceiving
all of
physics.
Einstein's
relationship
with quantum
physics was
quite
remarkable.
He was the
first, even
before Max
Planck, the
discoverer
of the
quantum, to
say that
quantum
theory was
revolutionary.
His idea of
light quanta
was a
landmark
break with
the
classical
understanding
of physics.
In 1909,
Einstein
presented
his first
paper to a
gathering of
physicists
and told
them that
they must
find some
way to
understand
waves and
particles
together.
In the early
1920s,
Albert
Einstein was
the lead
figure in a
famous
weekly
physics
colloquium
at the
University
of Berlin.
However, in
the
mid1920s,
as the
original
quantum
theory was
replaced
with a new
quantum
mechanics,
Einstein
balked at
the
Copenhagen
interpretation
of the new
equations
because it
settled for
a
probabilistic,
nonvisualizable
account of
physical
behavior.
Einstein
agreed that
the theory
was the best
available,
but he
looked for
an
explanation
that would
be more
"complete,"
i.e.,
deterministic.
His belief
that physics
described
the laws
that govern
"real
things" had
led to his
successes
with atoms,
photons, and
gravity. He
was
unwilling to
abandon that
faith.
Einstein's
famous
remark,
"Quantum
mechanics is
certainly
imposing.
But an inner
voice tells
me it is not
yet the real
thing. The
theory says
a lot, but
does not
really bring
us any
closer to
the secret
of the Old
One. I, at
any rate, am
convinced
that he does
not throw
dice,"
appeared in
a 1926
letter to
Max Born. It
was not a
rejection of
probabilistic
theories per
se. Einstein
had used
statistical
analysis in
his work on
Brownian
motion and
photoelectricity.
In papers
published
before the
miraculous
year of
1905, he had
even
discovered
Gibbs
ensembles on
his own. But
he did not
believe
that, at
bottom,
physical
reality
behaves
randomly.
In 1924, Albert Einstein received a short paper from a young Indian physicist named Satyendra Nath Bose, describing light as a gas of photons, and asking for Einstein's assistance in publication. Einstein realised that the same statistics could be applied to atoms, and published an article in German (then the lingua franca of physics) which described Bose's model and explained its implications. Bose Einstein statistics now describes any assembly of these indistinguishable particles known as bosons. Einstein also assisted Erwin Schr?inger in the development of the Quantum Boltzmann distribution, a mixed classical and quantum mechanical gas model  although he realised that this was less significant that the Bose Einstein model, and declined to have his name included on the paper.
Albert Einstein and former student Leo Szilard coinvented a unique type of refrigerator (usually called "The Einstein Refrigerator") in 1926. On November 11, 1930, patent number US1781541 was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard. The patent covered a thermodynamic refrigeration cycle providing cooling with no moving parts, at a constant pressure, with only heat as an input. The refrigeration cycle used ammonia, butane, and water.
After Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, Einstein was despised by the National Socialist. Nazi physicists (notably including the Nobel laureate Johannes Stark) attempted to discredit his theories. Einstein fled to the United States. In 1935, Einstein was given permanent residency in the United States. He accepted a position at the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He became an American citizen in 1940 (though maintaining possession of his Swiss citizenship).
Albert Einstein spent the last forty years of his life trying to unify gravity and electromagnetism, giving a new subtle understanding of quantum mechanics. He was looking for a classical unification of gravity and electromagnetism.
His work at
Princeton
focused on
the
unification
of the laws
of physics.
Einstein
undertook
the quest
for the
unification
of the
fundamental
forces and
spent his
time at
Princeton
investigating
this. He
attempted to
construct a
model, under
the
appropriate
conditions,
which
described
all forces
as different
manifestations
of a single
force. His
attempt was
in a way
doomed to
failure
because the
strong and
weak nuclear
forces were
not
understood
independently
until around
1970, 15
years after
Einstein's
death.
Einstein's
goal
survives in
the current
drive for
unification
of the
forces,
embodied
most notably
by string
theory.
Einstein
began to
form a
Generalized
Theory of
Gravitation
with the
universal
law of
gravitation
and the
electromagnetic
he 1950s, he
described
his work in
a Scientific
American
article.
Einstein was
guided by
the belief
of a single
statistical
measure of
variance for
the entire
set of
physical
laws and he
investigated
the smiliar
properties
of the
electromagnetic
and gravity
forces, as
they are
infinite and
obey the
inverse
square law.
Einstein's
Generalized
theory of
gravitation
is a
universal
mathematical
approach to
field
theory. He
investigated
reducing the
different
phenomena by
the process
of logic to
something
already
known or
evident.
Einstein
tried to
unify
gravity and
electromagnetism
in a way
that also
led to a new
subtle
understand
of quantum
mechanics.
Albert
Einstein assumed a
structure of
a
fourdimensional
spacetime
continuum
expressed in
axioms
represented
by five
component
vectors.
Particles
appear in
his research
as a limited
region in
space in
which the
field
strength or
the energy
density are
particularly
high.
Einstein
treated
subatomic
particles in
this
research as
objects
embedded in
the unified
field,
influencing
it and
existing as
an essential
constituent
of the
unified
field but
not of it.
Einstein
also
investigated
a natural
generalization
of
symmetrical
tensor
fields,
treating the
combination
of two parts
of the field
as being a
natural
procedure of
the total
field and
not the
symmetrical
and antisymmetrical
parts
separately.
He
researched a
way to
delineate
the
equations to
be derived
from a
variational
principle.
Albert
Einstein became
increasingly
isolated in
his research
over a
Generalized
Theory of
Gravitation
(being
characterized
as a "mad
scientist"
in these
endeavors)
and was
ultimately
unsuccessful
in his
attempts at
constructing
a theory
that would
unify
General
Relativity
and quantum
mechanics.
In 1948,
Albert
Einstein
served on
the original
committee
which
resulting in
the founding
of Brandeis
University.
In 1952, the
Israeli
government
proposed to
Einstein
that he take
the post of
second
president.
He declined
the offer.
He died at
Princeton in
1955,
leaving the
Generalized
Theory of
Gravitation
unsolved. He
was cremated
the same day
at Trenton,
New Jersey
on April 18,
1955. His
ashes were
scattered at
an
undisclosed
location.
Political
views
Albert
Einstein
considered
himself a
pacifist and
humanitarian.
Einstein's
views on
other
issues,
including
socialism,
McCarthyism
and racism,
were
controversial.
(Einstein on
socialism)
The American
FBI kept a
1,427 page
file on his
activities
and
recommended
that he be
barred from
immigrating
to the
United
States under
the Alien
Exclusion
Act,
alleging
that
Einstein
"believes
in, advises,
advocates,
or teaches a
doctrine
which, in a
legal sense,
as held by
the courts
in other
cases,
'would allow
anarchy to
stalk in
unmolested'
and result
in
'government
in name
only',"
among other
charges.
Einstein
initially
favored
construction
of the
atomic bomb,
in order to
ensure that
Hitler did
not do so
first, and
he even sent
a letter to
President
Roosevelt
(dated
August 2,
1939, before
World War II
broke out)
encouraging
him to
initiate a
programme to
create a
nuclear
weapon. But
after the
war he
lobbied for
nuclear
disarmament
and a world
government.
Albert
Einstein was
offered the
opportunity
to become
the first
President of
Israel but
declined.
His
religious
views were
close to the
pantheism of
Baruch
Spinoza: he
believed
that God
revealed
himself in
the holy
harmony of
the laws of
nature and
he rejected
a personal
God able to
interact
with humans.
He once said
that among
the major
religions,
he preferred
Buddhism.
Albert
Einstein has
become the
subject of a
number of
novels,
films and
plays
including
Nicolas
Roeg's film,
Insignificance
and Alan
Lightman's
novel,
Einstein's
Dreams.
Einstein was
even the
subject of
Philip
Glass's
groundbreaking
1976 opera
Einstein on
the Beach.
On the
lighter side
 take a
look at these
Albert
Einstein
jokes:
Jokes With
Einstein 1 
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